In the working area ”Value and Quality of Life”, different methods are used in order to measure and value individual preferences for quality of life and health care interventions. Methods for elicitation of values of risk reductions associated with safety improvements are also used.
The Swedish Healthcare Act directs that prioritisations in the health services shall rest on three fundamental ethical principles: the principle of human dignity, the principle of need and solidarity, and the principle of cost-effectiveness. Quality adjusted life year (QALY) is used as the effectiveness measurement in cost- utility analyses. Recommendations and reimbursement decisions are most often made on the basis of the number of QALYs produced relative to costs incurred. There are several appropriate methods to value health outcomes and several quality of life instruments are available, such as direct methods (Standard Gamble and Time trade off) and indirect instruments (EQ- 5D and SF-6D), and which are used within this working field.
In the working area there is much experience in estimating the population’s preferences and willingness to pay to reduce the risk of injuries in traffic. Methods which are also applicable in estimating individuals’ preferences or willingness to pay for health gain. Studies of how the general population values a QALY are also important within the working area.